Translation and Psychometric Testing of the Chinese Version of the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness

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Mind–body interventions are used to alleviate physical and psychological symptoms. The multidimensional assessment of interoceptive awareness (MAIA), which is used to self-report the effects of mind–body interventions, is not currently available in Chinese.


This study aimed to translate the MAIA from English into Chinese (MAIA-C) and to examine the psychometric properties of the MAIA-C.


This was a methodological study. The MAIA was translated forward and backward systematically, and content validity was assessed by a panel of experts. A convenience sample of adult participants with mind–body practice was recruited from social clubs in Taiwan. The MAIA-C was administered to study participants. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability were tested using Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient. Construct validity was assessed in two ways: using confirmatory factor analysis and using the differences between the known groups to divide the sample into two groups of highly experienced and less experienced participants.


The complete data for the 294 participants were analyzed. The eight-factor structure of the MAIA-C was confirmed. Cronbach’s α was .91 overall and .46–.88 for the individual scales of the instrument. Intraclass correlation coefficient and composite reliability for the scales ranged from .60 to .85 and .55 to .87, respectively. The result of confirmatory factor analysis revealed a fair fit of the model to the data with a root mean square error of approximation of .076 and a comparative fit index of .95. Significant differences were found for the seven scales between the two groups.

Conclusions/Implications for Practice:

The MAIA-C showed acceptable reliability and validity in psychometric testing. Therefore, this scale may be used in studies that assess interoceptive awareness in Chinese-speaking populations who are undergoing mind–body interventions.

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