Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Approach for Apoplectic Pituitary Tumor: Surgical Outcomes and Complications in 45 Patients

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Abstract

Objective

To assess the safety and effectiveness of the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETA) for apoplectic pituitary adenoma.

Design

A retrospective study.

Setting

Qilu Hospital of Shandong University; Brain Science Research Institute, Shandong University.

Participants

Patients admitted to Qilu Hospital of Shandong University who were diagnosed with an apoplectic pituitary tumor and underwent EETA for resection of the tumor.

Main Outcome Measures

In total 45 patients were included in a retrospective chart review. Data regarding patient age, sex, presentation, lesion size, surgical procedure, extent of resection, clinical outcome, and surgical complications were obtained from the chart review.

Results

In total, 38 (92.7%) of 41 patients with loss of vision obtained visual remission postoperatively. In addition, 16 patients reported a secreting adenoma, and postsurgical hormonal levels were normal or decreased in 14 patients. All other symptoms, such as headache and alteration of mental status, recovered rapidly after surgery. Two patients (4.4%) incurred cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Six patients (13.3%) experienced transient diabetes insipidus (DI) postoperatively, but none of these patients developed permanent DI. Five patients (11.1%) developed hypopituitarism and were treated with replacement of hormonal medicine. No cases of meningitis, carotid artery injury, or death related to surgery were reported.

Conclusion

EETA offers a safe and effective surgical option for apoplectic pituitary tumors and is associated with low morbidity and mortality.

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