Neck metastases in patients with esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) constitute the most significant predictor of poor long-term survival. Recently, researchers discovered the existence of dural lymphatic channels that drain to the cervical lymph nodes. From this physiologic basis, we hypothesized that patients with ENB who develop dural invasion (DI) would exhibit a proclivity for neck metastases.Design
Tertiary referral center.Participants
All patients treated for ENB from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 2015.Main Outcome Measures
Incidence, laterality, and recurrence rate of neck metastases by DI status.Results
Sixty-one patients were identified (38% female; median age 49, range, 10-80), 34 (56%) of whom had DI and 27 (44%) did not. Of patients with DI, 50% presented with or developed neck disease following treatment compared with just 22% of those without DI (p = 0.026). Bilateral neck disease was more common in patients with DI (11/34, 32%) compared with those without (2/27, 7%) (p = 0.018). Five-year regional recurrence-free survival rates were 88% for those without and 64% for those with DI (p = 0.022). Kadish C patients with DI were more likely to develop regional recurrence when compared with Kadish C without DI and Kadish A/B (p = 0.083). Further, Kadish C patients with DI displayed worse overall survival than Kadish C without DI and Kadish A/B. Kadish D patients displayed the worst overall survival. The difference in overall survival among these four groups was significant (p < 0.001).Conclusion
DI by ENB is associated with increased incidence of cervical nodal metastases, bilateral neck disease, worse regional recurrence-free survival, and poorer overall survival. These data support the division of Kadish C by DI status.