Experimental Formation of Periodontal Structure Around Titanium Implants Utilizing Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Pilot Study

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Abstract

Tissue engineering in the head and neck area, presents numerous advantages. One of the most remarkable advantages is that regeneration of only a small amount of tissue can be highly beneficial to the patient, particularly in the field of periodontal tissue regeneration. For decades, successful osseointegration has provided thousands of restorations that maintain normal function. With the increasing need to utilize dental implants for growing patients and enhance their function to simulate normal tooth physiology and proprioception, there appears to be an urgent need for the concept of periodontal tissue regeneration around dental implants. In the present work, 5 goats were used for immediate implant placement post canine teeth extraction. Each goat received 2 implant fixtures; the control side received a porous hollow root-form poly (DL-Lactide-co-Glycolide) scaffold around the titanium fixture, and the experimental side received the same scaffold but seeded with autogenous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. One animal was killed 10 days postoperatively, and the others were killed after 1 month. The results showed that on the experimental side, periodontal-like tissue with newly formed bone was demonstrated both at 10 days and after 1 month, while the control specimens showed early signs of connective tissue regeneration around the titanium fixture at 10 days, but was not shown in the 1 month specimens. It can be concluded that undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells were capable of differentiating to provide the 3 critical tissues required for periodontal tissue regeneration: cementum, bone, and periodontal ligament. This work may provide a new approach for periodontal tissue regeneration.

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