The Effects of Defect Type and Depth, and Measurement Direction on the Implant Stability Quotient Value

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of defect type and depth as well as measurement direction on implant stability in an ex vivo peri-implant bovine rib bone model. Six kinds of defects (3-wall 2.5 mm, 3-wall 5 mm, 1-wall 2.5 mm, 1-wall 5 mm, circumferential 2.5 mm, circumferential 5 mm), and control (no defect) were prepared in 14 bovine rib bones. A total of 84 defects and 14 controls were created. The same type and size of implants (4 × 10 mm) were placed in each group. The thickness of cortical bone and the insertion torque were measured for each defect, and the implant stability quotient (ISQ) value was measured 3 times from 4 different directions. The thickness of cortical bone ranged from 2.71-3.18 mm. Insertion torque decreased as the defect size increased. As the defect size for the same defect depth increased, the ISQ value decreased (P < .001). There were significant differences between the ISQ values obtained with different measurement directions only between the control and 3-wall 5 mm defect (P < .0001). The ISQ value opposite to the defect direction was higher than that in the defect direction in all 3 directions of the 3-wall and 1-wall 5 mm defects. ISQ values were influenced by defect type and depth. Loss of cortical bone reduced the stability of implants and reduced the ISQ value. Measurement direction also influenced ISQ values.

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