Porcine Dermis-Derived Collagen Membranes Induce Implantation Bed Vascularization Via Multinucleated Giant Cells: A Physiological Reaction?

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In this study, the tissue reactions to 2 new porcine dermis-derived collagen membranes of different thickness were analyzed. The thicker material (Mucoderm) contained sporadically preexisting vessel skeletons and fatty islands. The thinner membrane (Collprotect) had a bilayered structure (porous and occlusive side) without any preexisting structures. These materials were implanted subcutaneously in mice to analyze the tissue reactions and potential transmembranous vascularization. Histological and histomorphometrical methodologies were performed at 4 time points (3, 10, 15, and 30 days). Both materials permitted stepwise connective tissue ingrowth into their central regions. In the Mucoderm matrix, newly built microvessels were found within the preexisting vessel and fatty island skeletons after 30 days. This vascularization was independent of the inflammation-related vascularization on both material surfaces. The Collprotect membrane underwent material disintegration by connective tissue strands in combination with vessels and multinucleated giant cells. The histomorphometric analyses revealed that the thickness of Mucoderm did not decrease significantly, while an initial significant decrease of membrane thickness in the case of Collprotect was found at day 15. The present results demonstrate that the 2 analyzed collagen membranes underwent a multinucleated giant cell-associated vascularization. Neither of the materials underwent transmembraneous vascularization. The microvessels were found within the preexisting vessel and fatty island skeletons. Additional long-term studies and clinical studies are necessary to determine how the observed foreign body giant cells affect tissue regeneration.

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