Surface Topographical Changes of a Failing Acid-Etched Long-Term in Function Retrieved Dental Implant

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The aim of the present study was to report the main topographical and chemical changes of a failing 18-year in function retrieved acidetching implant in the micro- and nanoscales. A partially edentulous 45 year old rehabilitated with a dental implant at 18 years of age exhibited mobility. After careful examination, a 3.25×13-mm press-fit dental implant was retrieved. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis was carried out to study topographical changes of the retrieved implant compared with an unused implant with similar topographical characteristics. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was used to study the surface composition of the retrieved failing implant. Clear changes related to the dual dioxide layer are present as visible in ≥×500 magnification. In addition, it was found that, for the retrieved implant, the surface composition consisted mainly of Ti2p, O1s, C1s, and Al2p. Also, a meaningful decrease of N and C was noticed, whereas the peaks of Ti2p, Al2p, and O1s increased when analyzing deeper (up to ×2000s) in the sample. It was shown that the superficial surface of a retrieved press-fit dual acid-etched implant 18 years after placement is impaired. However, the causes and consequences for these changes cannot be determined.

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