In Vitro Evaluation of Titanium Exfoliation During Simulated Surgical Insertion of Dental Implants

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Dissolution of titanium wear particles in the oral environment, and their accumulation in the surrounding tissues have been associated with failure of dental implants (DI). The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of mechanical forces involved in surgical insertion of DI on surface wear and metal particle generation. It was hypothesized that mechanical factors associated with implant placement can lead to the generation of titanium particles in the oral environment. The testing methodology for surface evaluation employed simulated surgical insertion, followed by removal of DI in different densities of simulated bone material. Torsional forces were monitored for the insertion and removal of DI. The surface of the simulated bone materials was inspected with optical microscopy to detect traces of metallic particles that may have been generated during the procedure. Further characterization of the composition of powders collected from osteotomy cavities was conducted with powder X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the different densities of simulated bone material affected the torsional forces associated with implant insertion. However, the mechanical factors involved in the implant insertion/removal procedure did not generate wear particles, as confirmed by powder X-ray experiments.

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