Classification and Effects of Implant Surface Modification on the Bone: Human Cell-Based In Vitro Studies

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Implant surfaces are continuously being improved to achieve faster osseointegration and a stronger bone to implant interface. This review will present the various implant surfaces, the parameters for implant surface characterization, and the corresponding in vitro human cell-based studies determining the strength and quality of the bone-implant contact. These in vitro cell-based studies are the basis for animal and clinical studies and are the prelude to further reviews on how these surfaces would perform when subjected to the oral environment and functional loading.

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