Thermodynamic Effects of 3 Different Diode Lasers on an Implant-Bone Interface: An Ex-Vivo Study With Review of the Literature

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The aim of this study is to assess the increase of temperature following laser irradiation with 810 nm, 980 nm, and 1064 nm diode laser wavelengths, of an implant under conditions that more closely replicate those of the human body. A 4×14 mm machined surface implant was placed in a porcine rib to replicate the conductivity of heat given by the bone. A peri-implant vertical defect was made that was 2 mm wide and 2 mm deep to simulate bone resorption. Two thermocouples were positioned crestally and apically on the implant surface. The tip of the laser was kept 3 mm away from the surface and continuously moved in an up-and-down and side-to-side fashion, inside the defect for 60 seconds. Initial temperatures and the time needed to reach an increase of 10°C were recorded. The experiment was repeated at room temperature and in a 37°C water bath with the following settings: 0.6 W, 0.8 W, 1 W continuous and repeated in pulsed. A critical increase of temperature of more than 10°C is reached with all lasers at 0.8 W and 1 W in continuous mode at room temperature. Only the 1064 nm diode laser reached the critical increase at 0.8 W in pulsed mode. No critical increase of temperature was registered with other settings and when the bone block was placed in a 37°C water bath. The results of this study suggest that use of these diode lasers does not cause a harmful increase in temperature when used under conditions similar to those of the human body.

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