Quantitation of Mandibular Symphysis Bone as Source of Bone Grafting: Description in Class I and Class III Skeletal Conditions

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The aim of this study was to quantify the cortical and cancellous bone in the mandibular symphysis and relate it to the teeth and to the skeletal class. A descriptive study was conducted using cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT). Class I and class III subjects were included, defined according to dental occlusion and cephalogram results. Linear measurements were taken on the CBCT of the mandibular canines, lateral incisors, and central incisors, where the analysis was related to the axial and apical axes considering the bone in relation to the dental area. With previous definitions, an observer took 2 measurements of the height of the mandibular symphysis, cortical bone of the buccal and lower region, and thickness of cancellous bone at different levels; the correlation coefficient between the first and second measurement was 0.99 and presented P = .001. The results were analyzed with analysis of variance and Tukey's honest significant difference test, with P < .05 being statistically significant. The symphysis height was significantly greater in class III subjects. The cortical bone was an average 1.67 ± 0.44 mm in vertical distance in the skeletal class I group and 1.74 ± 0.47 mm in the class III group. The cancellous bone had an average width of 5.03 ± 1.94 mm in the skeletal class I group and 4.74 ± 2.05 mm in the class III group. It was observed that cancellous bone was significantly thicker at the incisor level than at the canine level. There were anatomical differences between skeletal class I and class III subjects, although the clinical significance may be questionable. With the values from these analyses, it may be concluded that there are no significant differences in quantitation of the cortical and cancellous bone in the anterior mandibular symphysis.

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