Reducing the backlash effect: Self-monitoring and women's promotions

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Previous research shows that masculine (agentic) women suffer from a backlash effect in which they are sanctioned for violating the feminine gender role stereotype. We examine the impact of self-monitoring on the promotion rates of MBA men and women over an 8-year period following graduation. Results show that women who were more masculine as well as high on self-monitoring received more promotions, suggesting that self-monitoring is associated with an absence of backlash effects.

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