microRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that in the last decade have emerged as overarching regulators of gene expression. Their abundance, ability to repress a large number of target genes and overlapping target specificity indicate a complex network of interactions that is still being defined. A number of studies focused on the role of microRNAs in cartilage have identified a small number, including miR-140 and -675 as playing important roles in regulation of cartilage homeostasis and together with the broader description of the activity of microRNAs in other tissues are beginning to define the function of microRNAs in cartilage development and homeostasis. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 31:1333–1344, 2013.