Statistical shape modeling of cam femoroacetabular impingement

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Abstract

Statistical shape modeling (SSM) was used to quantify 3D variation and morphologic differences between femurs with and without cam femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). 3D surfaces were generated from CT scans of femurs from 41 controls and 30 cam FAI patients. SSM correspondence particles were optimally positioned on each surface using a gradient descent energy function. Mean shapes for groups were defined. Morphological differences between group mean shapes and between the control mean and individual patients were calculated. Principal component analysis described anatomical variation. Among all femurs, the first six modes (or principal components) captured significant variations, which comprised 84% of cumulative variation. The first two modes, which described trochanteric height and femoral neck width, were significantly different between groups. The mean cam femur shape protruded above the control mean by a maximum of 3.3 mm with sustained protrusions of 2.5–3.0 mm along the anterolateral head-neck junction/distal anterior neck. SSM described variations in femoral morphology that corresponded well with areas prone to damage. Shape variation described by the first two modes may facilitate objective characterization of cam FAI deformities; variation beyond may be inherent population variance. SSM could characterize disease severity and guide surgical resection of bone. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 31:1620–1626, 2013

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