Osteoporosis and osteoarthritis commonly coexist in the elderly. In patients undergoing prosthetic total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the bone quality around the knee joint may affect the safety of prosthetic implantation and consequently satisfaction with the surgical outcome. We recruited 50 postmenopausal women undergoing TKA for primary osteoarthritis; 43 completed the study protocol. The bone quality parameters of the operated knee, including bone mineral density assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and microarchitecture variables assessed using micro-computed tomography, were determined. Surgical outcomes were assessed according to immediate (<1 week) postoperative pain quantified using the visual analog scale and knee function quantified using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) at 2 and 6 months postoperatively. The influence of bone quality parameters on surgical outcomes was analyzed using simple and multiple regression analyses. Volumetric bone mineral density (R2 = 0.187–0.234, p < 0.01), the structural model index (R2 = 0.103–0.181, p < 0.05), and trabecular separation (R2 = 0.289–0.424, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with postoperative pain and improvement according to the KOOS. In conclusion, local bone quality, including mineral content and microarchitecture, affects the surgical outcome of TKA. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:240–248, 2016.