Patient specific computational models to optimize surgical correction for flatfoot deformity

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Several surgically corrective procedures are considered to treat Adult Acquired Flatfoot Deformity (AAFD) patients, relieve pain, and restore function. Procedure selection is based on best practices and surgeon preference. Recent research created patient specific models of AAFD to explore their predictive capabilities and examine effectiveness of the surgical procedure used to treat the deformity. The models’ behavior was governed solely by patient bodyweight, soft tissue constraints, muscle loading, and joint contact without the assumption of idealized joints. The current work expanded those models to determine if an alternate procedure would be more effective for the individual. All procedures incorporated first a tendon transfer and then included one hindfoot procedure, the Medializing Calcaneal Osteotomy (MCO), and one of three lateral column procedures: Evans osteotomy, Calcaneocuboid Distraction Arthrodesis (CCDA), Z osteotomy, and the combination procedures MCO & Evans osteotomy, MCO & CCDA, and MCO & Z osteotomy. The combination MCO & Evans and MCO & Z procedures were shown to provide the greatest amount of correction for both forefoot abduction and hindfoot valgus. However, these two procedures significantly increased joint contact force, specifically at the calcaneocuboid joint, and ground reaction force along the lateral column. With exception to the lateral bands of the plantar fascia and middle spring ligament, the strain present in the plantar fascia, spring, and deltoid ligaments decreased after all procedures. The use of patient specific computational models provided the ability to investigate effects of alternate surgical corrections on restoring biomechanical function in these flatfoot patients. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res

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