Composite metric R2 − R1ρ (1/T2 − 1/T1ρ) as a potential MR imaging biomarker associated with changes in pain after ACL reconstruction: A six-month follow-up

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Abstract

This study looked to investigate a new quantitative metric, R2 − R1ρ (1/T2 − 1/T1ρ), using magnetic resonance (MR) images and voxel-based relaxometry (VBR) for detecting early cartilage degeneration and explore the association with patient-reported outcomes measures (PROMs) in patients 6 months after ACL reconstruction. Sixty-four patients from three sites were bilaterally scanned on a 3T MR with a combined T1ρ/T2 protocol to calculate R1ρ (1/T1ρ) and R2 (1/T2) values at baseline and 6 months after reconstructive surgery. Non-rigid registration was applied to align images onto a template, allowing VBR to determine VBR rate differences and explore cross-sectional and longitudinal differences between injured and uninjured knees, generating Statistical Parametric Maps (SPMs). Baseline R2 − R1ρ differences were further correlated with change in PROMs from the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) from baseline to 6 months. Cross-sectional results demonstrated low relaxation rate differences in the injured patella (baseline: 21%, p = 0.01; 6-months: 18%, p = 0.02), lateral tibia (baseline: 25%, p = 0.01; 6-months: 24%, p = 0.01), and weight-bearing regions of the tibia and femur. The uninjured patella showed significant longitudinal changes (17%, p = 0.02). R2 − R1ρ differences showed significant correlations with KOOS PROMs, particularly in the lateral tibia, patella, and trochlea. R2 − R1ρ difference VBR analyses provide new and highly sensitive parameters for assessing early cartilage degeneration in patients after ACL injury by integrating findings from both T1ρ and T2, commonly used relaxation time parameters, into a single metric. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res

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