Perioperative Pain Management in the Chronic Opioid User

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Perioperative pain management for patients who chronically consume opioids must be managed carefully to provide optimal pain control while avoiding negative outcomes. This review examines current pain management options in the perioperative period, including patient education and treatment planning; pharmacologic management with opioid pain medications; management with non‐opioids, including acetaminophen, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, alpha‐adrenergic agonists, anxiolytics, and psychiatric medications; and use of local and regional anesthesia techniques.

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