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It has been recommended that all newborn babies who have received substantial resuscitation be cared for in an environment where post-resuscitation care can be provided. To test this recommendation, we examined whether infants who received delivery room resuscitation and seemingly recovered by 5 min age are at increased risk of short-term morbidity.We undertook a retrospective analysis of the outcomes of babies who received delivery room resuscitation, and who had seemingly recovered by 5 min age, over a 1 year time period at a single academic institution. The 33 babies were compared with outcomes of 33 controls who received no resuscitation with normal 1 and 5 min Apgar scores. Complication rates and admissions to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were compared between the two groups using the χ2 test.Fifty-two percent of the study group and three percent of the control group were admitted to the NICU (P<0.01). Short-term complications were noted in 61% of the study group and three percent of the control group (P<0.01).Increased short-term morbidity is demonstrated in neonates who receive delivery room resuscitation and are seemingly recovered at 5 min, when compared to a group of infants with normal Apgar scores at one and 5 min; and these infants should be cared for in an environment where ongoing evaluation can be provided.