Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is associated with increased risk for perinatal mortality and morbidities. To provide an overview of the advances in our knowledge concerning the obstetric approaches to the prevention of MAS. The evidence of the effectiveness of intrapartum surveillance, amnioinfusion, and delivery room management in the prevention of MAS are reviewed in the present paper. Meconium aspiration syndrome remains one of the most common but challenging conditions for obstetricians and pediatricians. The available evidence did not demonstrate a beneficial effect of either of obstetric strategies in the prevention of MAS.