The objective of the study was to compare the effectiveness of surfactant treatment either by bolus or surfactant lung lavage followed by inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) therapy in infants with meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) complicated by persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN). In this study, thirteen infants with diagnosis of MAS and PPHN were first treated with conventional respiratory support. Then between 2 and 22 h of life they were randomized either to bolus surfactant treatment (n=6) or surfactant lung lavage (SLL, n=7) treatment. Then all infants were treated with iNO therapy. The groups were compared with regard to their clinical course: changes in PaO2, FiO2, MAP, OI, A-a oxygen gradient, duration of iNO therapy, length of ventilation and hospitalization. Complications and mortality were also compared. The results showed that infants treated with SLL had significant improvements in oxygenation, decreases in MAP and A-a gradients. But there were no significant differences in duration of ventilation, iNO treatment, length of hospitalization or complications. In conclusion these data show no advantage of SLL therapy over bolus surfactant treatment in infants with MAS complicated by PPHN.