In this article we have attempted to review the current pharmacological treatment options for infants with meconium aspiration syndrome with or without persistent pulmonary hypertension. These treatments include ventilatory support, surfactant treatment and inhaled nitric oxide (INO), in addition to older and newer pharmacological treatments. These include sedatives, muscle relaxants, alkali infusion, antibiotics and the newer vasodilators. Many aspects of treatment, including ventilatory care, surfactant treatment and the use of INO, are reviewed in great detail in this issue. On the other hand, many newer pharmacological modalities of treatment described here have not been evaluated with randomized control trials. We have given an overview of these emerging therapies.