Self-reported and laboratory evaluation of late pregnancy nicotine exposure and drugs of abuse

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OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of late pregnancy nicotine exposures, including secondhand smoke exposures, and to evaluate the associated risk of exposure to drugs of abuse.STUDY DESIGN:The study was a retrospective single-center cohort analysis of more than 18 months. We compared self-reported smoking status from vital birth records with mass spectrometry laboratory results of maternal urine using a chi-square test. Logistic regression estimated adjusted odds for detection of drugs of abuse based on nicotine detection.RESULTS:Compared with 8.6% self-reporting cigarette use, mass spectrometry detected high-level nicotine exposures for 16.5% of 708 women (P<0.001) and an additional 7.5% with low-level exposures. We identified an increased likelihood of exposure to drugs of abuse, presented as adjusted odds ratios, (95% confidence interval (CI)), for both low-level (5.69, CI: 2.09 to 15.46) and high-level (13.93, CI: 7.06 to 27.49) nicotine exposures.CONCLUSION:Improved measurement tactics are critically needed to capture late pregnancy primary and passive nicotine exposures from all potential sources.

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