Erythropoietin (EPO) is neuroprotective after asphyxia in animal studies. The efficacy and safety of EPO monotherapy in term neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is uncertain.STUDY DESIGN:
Hundred term neonates with moderate or severe HIE were randomized by random permuted block algorithm to receive either EPO 500 U kg-1 per dose in 2 ml saline intravenously (50 neonates) on alternate days for a total of five doses with the first dose given by 6 h of age (treatment group) or 2 ml of normal saline (50 neonates) similarly for a total of five doses (placebo group) in a double-blind study. No hypothermia was given. The primary outcome was combined end point of death or moderate or severe disability at mean age of 19 months (s.d., 0.61).RESULTS:
Death or moderate or severe disability occurred in 40% of neonates in the treatment group vs 70% in the placebo group (risk ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 0.85; P = 0.003). Death occurred in 16% of patients in both the groups (risk ratio, 1.0; 95% CI 0.33 to 2.9; P = 0.61). The risk of cerebral palsy was lower among survivors in the treatment group (risk ratio, 0.52; 95% CI 0.25 to 1.03; P = 0.04) and lesser number of babies were on anticonvulsants at assessment (risk ratio, 0.47; 95% CI 0.20 to 1.01; P = 0.03). Neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging showed more abnormalities in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.66; 95% CI 0.42 to 1.03; P = 0.04)). Improvement in other neurological outcomes was not significant.CONCLUSION:
EPO monotherapy reduces the risk of death or disability in term neonates with moderate or severe encephalopathy.