Maternal/neonatal vitamin D deficiency: a new risk factor for necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants?

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The objective of the study was to investigate the possible association between maternal/neonatal 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) levels and development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).


One hundred and forty-five preterm infants ≤36 weeks of gestation were enrolled. 25-OHD levels were determined in maternal/neonatal blood samples that were obtained at the time of admission to the neonatal intensive care unit.


Of the 145 enrolled patients, 26 (18%) developed NEC. Maternal/neonatal 25-OHD levels in the NEC group were significantly lower than those of the no-NEC group (P = 0.001 and 0.004, respectively). In univariate logistic regression analysis, both maternal/neonatal vitamin D levels were a significant predictor of NEC (odds ratio (OR): 0.92 and 0.89; P<0.001 and P<0.005, respectively). However, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only maternal vitamin D level was a significant predictor of NEC ( OR: 0.86, P<0.0009).


This is the first study to propose a possible association between maternal/neonatal 25-OHD levels and subsequent development of NEC in preterm infants.

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