Essential fatty acid deficiency during parenteral soybean oil lipid minimization

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OBJECTIVE:To determine if parenteral lipid minimization in infants results in essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency.STUDY DESIGN:Prospective study of infants >30 days old and >34 weeks postmenstrual age receiving parenteral lipid minimization (<1.5 g kg-1 per day) with either soybean oil or fish oil and >90% of total nutritional intake parenterally in the 14 days before a serum EFA sample. Nonparametric tests were used for statistical analyses with significance at 0.05.RESULTS:Fifteen samples on soybean oil and nine on fish oil were included. Energy and macronutrient intakes and weight gain were similar between groups. Biochemical EFA deficiency occurred in 60% receiving soybean oil but none receiving fish oil (P<0.01). Average daily weight gain was 49% less in EFA deficient infants than EFA sufficient infants (P = 0.02).CONCLUSION:Infants on lipid minimization with parenteral soybean oil, but not fish oil, are at high risk of biochemical EFA deficiency with slower weight gain.

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