This study describes the histologic characteristics of root surfaces of primary teeth from children with prepubertal periodontitis (PP). Fifteen primary teeth from 4 children with PP, and 2 control primary teeth from 2 healthy children were examined. Light microscopy revealed normal root surfaces in the control teeth. In contrast, the PP specimens revealed bacteria inside dentin tubules or covering cementum, a cuticle, or resorbed dentin; normal, wider than normal, or hypoplastic cementum; resorption lacunae with various depths; aplastic root resorption; alternate resorption and repair; and active repair. No cementoclasts were found in the resorption lacunae. Scanning electron microscopy revealed intrabony and suprabony root areas, and a “plaque free zone” (PFZ). Colonies of filaments were evident at the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). The suprabony root surfaces had resorption lacunae, isolated short rods, calculus, colonies of filaments, or colonies composed by an heterogeneous bacterial population. The coronal boundary of the PFZ was the border of a sheet-like structure, which included isolated rods or filaments. At the PFZ, isolated filaments and rods, and a fibril matrix were evident. The apical boundary of the PFZ consisted of bundles of soft tissue remnants or the insertion of the periodontal fibers. The intrabony surfaces were mostly covered by soft tissue, which included isolated filaments and short rods. Resorption lacunae with or without soft tissue were also evident in this area. Crystals of calcium oxalate dihydrate and erythrocytes in distinct forms were found at various root areas. The present findings are different from those previously reported for hypophosphatasia specimens. J Periodontol 1998;69:337–347.