Root surface resorption, ankylosis (replacement resorption) and alveolar bone resorption are not uncommon sequelae to periodontal healing in both animal and human trials whether the treatment objective is regenerative, preventive, or conservative. The present report describes a case with progressive cervical root resorption in a patient who received periodontal regenerative treatment with guided tissue regeneration (GTR). A 46-year-old woman was referred for treatment of severe periodontitis. Remaining radiographic attachment was less than 50%. Following a period of 18 months, during, which non-surgical and surgical therapies were performed, angular defects were diagnosed on radiographs and recurrent bleeding periodontal pockets (6 mm) were found in the proximal areas of 24 and 25. Root caries was not present. Periodontal surgery with GTR was performed in this area. No immediate postsurgical complications were noted. Two years later, clinical and radiographic examinations revealed gingival recession with bleeding periodontal pockets (6 mm) which had partly uncovered severe proximal cervical resorptions in 25. Root surface caries was not present. Following surgical inspection, the root of 25 was removed. The root was subsequently prepared for histological analysis. Resorption cavities covered almost the entire cervical proximal surface of the root above intact infracrestal cementum and were covered by numerous CD68+, both mononuclear and multinucleated cells. In a central area as indicated on the radiographs, the cavities penetrated into the root canal. There was no evidence of root caries. J Periodontol 1998;69:392–395.