Dietary Supplementation of Omega-3 Fatty Acid and Circulating Levels of Interleukin-1β, Osteocalcin, and C-Reactive Protein in Rats

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Abstract

Background:

In this study, we evaluated the effects of two different regimes of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acid on serum levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), osteocalcin (OC), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in experimental periodontitis.

Methods:

Experimental periodontitis was induced by repeated injections of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Thirty-nine adult male Sprague- Dawley rats were divided into four study groups as follows: an LPS positive control group; a saline (negative) control group; and two different groups with omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplementation, one in which we gave the supplement subsequent to disease induction (TO3) and the other in which the agent was started prior to and continued subsequent to LPS injections (P + TO3). In the TO3 group, omega-3 fatty acid administration was performed for 14 days following induction of experimental periodontitis. In the P + TO3 group, omega-3 fatty acid was given for 14 days prior to the start of LPS injections and was continued for another 14 days subsequent to the induction of experimental periodontitis. On day 15 of the first LPS injection, serum samples were obtained and rats were sacrificed. Serum samples were analyzed for IL-1b, OC, and CRP concentrations by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay. Defleshed jaws were analyzed morphometrically for alveolar bone loss. Data were evaluated statistically by non-parametric tests.

Results:

LPS injection resulted in statistically significantly more bone loss compared to the saline control group (P <0.05). None of the omega-3 fatty acid administration groups showed evidence that this fatty acid was effective in preventing LPS-induced alveolar bone loss. TO3 and P + TO3 groups revealed significantly higher IL-1b and OC levels than the LPS group (P <0.05). The study groups exhibited no significant differences in the serum CRP levels.

Conclusions:

Omega-3 fatty acid administration does not seem to influence circulating levels of CRP. The significantly increased serum OC level observed in both omega-3 fatty acid regimes is curious and could have an effect on bone turnover, as could the further significant increase in serum IL-1b, which could counteract any osteoblastic induction by OC through promotion of osteoclast activity. The lack of a therapeutic benefit of omega-3 fatty acid in this study, despite the effects on OC and IL-1b, is difficult to explain, and further studies are required to more fully assess the potential role of this fatty acid in periodontal treatment. J Periodontol 2006;77:814-820.

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