Profiling the Cytokines in Gingival Crevicular Fluid Using a Cytokine Antibody Array

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Various compounds have been detected in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) as indicators of periodontal disease activity. Therefore, the analysis of GCF may be especially beneficial for diagnosing current periodontal status and addressing the effects of treatment. Moreover, the identification of new markers in GCF may also contribute to elucidating novel mechanisms involved in periodontal disease. This study sought novel marker proteins specific to chronic periodontitis by profiling cytokines in GCF using a cytokine antibody array system.


Human cytokine array V, which detects 79 cytokines on one membrane, was used to determine the profile of cytokines in GCF from seven subjects with chronic periodontitis and seven subjects with healthy periodontia. The profile was exposed to x-ray film and quantified using image analysis software. Healthy and diseased sites were compared statistically.


We detected 10 cytokines in periodontally healthy sites and 36 cytokines in periodontally diseased sites. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-b2) were detected at high levels in healthy and diseased subjects. There were significant differences between healthy and diseased subjects in the levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), tumor necrosis factor-beta (TNF-b), growth-related oncogene (GRO), interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP- 10), angiogenin (Ang), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), osteoprotegerin (OPG), epidermal growth factor (EGF), glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC), oncostatin M (OSM), fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4), IL-16, homologous to lymphotoxins (LIGHT), and placenta growth factor (PlGF). Of these, the newly detected cytokines were GRO, Ang, IGFBP-3, GDNF, PARC, OSM, FGF-4, IL-16, LIGHT, and PlGF.


In this study, we detected several cytokines in GCF using a cytokine antibody array system, including both inflammatory cytokines and various growth factors. Therefore, periodontal disease may participate in the wound healing process and in tissue destruction via the inflammatory process. Our results suggest that the quantification of these cytokines in GCF provides useful information for the diagnosis of periodontal disease status. J Periodontol 2006;77:856-864.

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