Tissue Engineering Bone Formation in Novel Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenic Protein 2-Atelocollagen Composite Scaffolds

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Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) are important bone-induction factors, and the development of a suitable carrier for BMPs is a critical step to achieve osteoinductive function. The aims of the present study were to evaluate, at the cellular and molecular levels, the feasibility of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2)-collagen composite scaffold and its efficiency for carrying BMP-2 in ectopic bone formation in rats.


Scaffolds with (test) or without rhBMP-2 (control) were made and implanted into the calf muscle of 16 5-weekold rats. The tissue responses to the scaffolds were examined by histology. Masson's trichrome and von Kossa stainings were performed to examine collagen matrix deposition and calci- fication at 3, 7, 10, and 14 days. Expressions of bone phenotypic markers, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and bone sialoprotein were detected by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry.


No detectable adverse responses were noted around the implanted scaffolds, and the area of the resorbed scaffold had been replaced by young connective tissue by 3 to 7 days in both groups. In the rhBMP-2 composite scaffold, collagen matrix deposition was found in the implanted site on day 7 and initial signs of endochondral differentiation also appeared. Mineralization and the expressions of key bone proteins were demonstrated in chondroblasts and osteoblasts at 7 to 14 days. Molecular cascades of bone induction were not shown in control specimens.


The rhBMP-2-atelocollagen scaffold showed excellent biocompatibility and possessed a bone-inducing capacity in rat within 2 weeks, and, thus, may provide a potential application in tissue engineering of bone tissue. J Periodontol 2007; 78:335-343.

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