Effect of Phase I Periodontal Therapy on Anti-Cardiolipin Antibodies in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated With Chronic Periodontitis

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Abstract

Background:

Serum anti-cardiolipin (aCL) antibodies are prevalent in patients with periodontal diseases. These increased aCL concentrations were identified to play a modulating role in cardiovascular diseases. The present study aims to explore the effect of phase I periodontal therapy on immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG aCL antibodies in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) associated with chronic periodontitis.

Methods:

A cross-sectional randomized clinical study was conducted within two groups comprising a sample size of 72 patients (n == 36 each). Group 1 had clinical features of AMI, and group 2 had clinical features of AMI associated with chronic periodontitis. After a thorough clinical and oral examination, the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment loss (AL) were recorded. Serum sample collection by venipuncture was done for estimation of serum IgM and IgG aCL concentration by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. In group 2, phase I periodontal therapy was performed, and clinical and biochemical parameters were reanalyzed after 1 month.

Results:

In group 2, the mean PI, GI, PD, clinical AL, and serum IgM and IgG aCL antibody levels were significantly higher than in group 1 patients. In addition, study results showed significant alterations in concentrations of serum IgM (P == 0.008) and IgG (P <0.001) aCL along with periodontal parameters after phase I periodontal therapy.

Conclusion:

The phase I periodontal therapy altered levels of serum IgG and IgM aCL antibodies in patients with AMI associated with chronic periodontitis.

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