Effectiveness of Periodontal Treatment to Improve Metabolic Control in Patients With Chronic Periodontitis and Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

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Abstract

Background:

It was recently suggested that scaling and root planing (SRP) may help to improve glycemic and metabolic control in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2); however, the effectiveness of SRP in this role remains unclear. This meta-analysis assesses the effectiveness of SRP in improving glycemic and metabolic control in patients with CP and DM2.

Methods:

A literature search of electronic databases was performed for articles published through May 16, 2012, followed by a manual search of several dental journals. A meta-analysis was conducted according to the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Weighted mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL and LDL, respectively). All outcomes were evaluated as changes from baseline to the end of follow-up. Heterogeneity was assessed with the χ2-based Cochran Q test and I2 statistic. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05.

Results:

After the study selection process, five randomized clinical trials were included. Results of the meta-analysis indicated that SRP was effective in the reduction of HbA1c (MD = 0.65; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.88; P <0.05) and FPG (MD = 9.04; 95% CI 2.17 to 15.9; P <0.05), but no significant differences were found in the reduction of TC, TG, HDL, or LDL. No evidence of heterogeneity was detected.

Conclusion:

The meta-analysis results seem to support the effectiveness of SRP in the improvement of glycemic control in patients with CP and DM2; however, future studies are needed to confirm these results.

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