Association Between Periodontitis and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study

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Some studies have reported an association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and periodontitis. The aim of the present study is to analyze this potential association and the influence of risk variables associated with GDM.


This case-control study includes 360 women, 90 with GDM and 270 controls. Participants received a full-mouth periodontal examination with a record of bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL). Periodontitis is defined as the presence in ≥4 teeth of ≥1 sites with PD ≥4 mm and CAL ≥3 mm associated with BOP. The influence of risk variables in the occurrence of GDM is tested through univariate analysis and multivariate logistic and multinomial regression. Odds ratio (ORs) and respective confidence intervals (CIs) are calculated and reported.


The prevalence of periodontitis was 40% in the case group (GDM) and 46.3% in the control group. There was a lack of association between periodontitis and GDM (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.40 to 1.38). The multivariate final logistic regression model retained the following as significant variables associated with GDM: maternal age (OR = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.97 to 3.56), chronic hypertension (OR = 3.16; 95% CI = 1.35 to 7.42), and body mass index (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.41 to 2.81).


A high prevalence of periodontitis was found among cases and controls, with no association between periodontitis and GDM. The present study suggests the need for implementation of health policies directed to the periodontal care of pregnant women.

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