Host Genome, Epigenome, and Oral Microbiome Interactions: Toward Personalized Periodontal Therapy

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Periodontal diseases are multidimensional and complex. Bacterial content is the initiator, but disease progression depends on genetic and environmental parameters related to the host. Although bone loss magnitude is the common resulting outcome, the biologic process likely represents a unique inflammatory response characteristic to every individual. Therefore, it is obvious that practitioners must take into account the influence of these parameters and tailor a treatment accordingly. New, emerging deoxyribonucleotide-based technologies allow integration of the biologic impact of the environment, and periodontists should be prepared to incorporate these technologies into their practice to advance personalized medicine. This commentary provides updated insights on the distinctiveness of inflammation per individual in terms of microbiome and genome specificity and cites some educational resources helpful for implementing individualized therapy.

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