Orthodontic Force Increases Interleukin-1β and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Expression and Alveolar Bone Loss in Periodontitis

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Abstract

Background:

The present study aims to evaluate the effects of orthodontic movement (OM) on the periodontal tissues of rats with ligature-induced periodontal disease.

Methods:

Eighty-eight rats were divided into four groups: 1) negative control (sham operated); 2) periodontal disease; 3) OM; and 4) periodontal disease followed by OM (OMP). Rats were sacrificed 3 hours or 1, 3, or 7 days after OM commencement. Bone volume fraction (BVF) and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed in hemimaxillae by microcomputed tomography analysis. Expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were evaluated in gingival samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and in the furcation region by immunohistochemistry analysis (IHC).

Results:

The OMP group had lower BVF and BMD levels compared to the other groups at day 7 (P <0.05). Maximum messenger ribonucleic acid expression of both cytokines was observed in the OMP group at day 1 (P <0.05). In the same period, all proteins were expressed in high levels for all test groups compared to the control group. The number of cells positive for IL-1β and TNF-α by IHC was highest in the OMP group at day 1, with progressive reduction thereafter.

Conclusion:

The results suggest that OM acts synergistically with periodontal disease in periodontal breakdown through upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines.

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