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Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are key mediators of the intracapsular pathological conditions of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Therefore, the gene expression profiles in synovial fibroblast-like cells (SFCs) from patients with internal derangement of the TMJ were examined after they were stimulated with IL-1β or TNF-α to determine which genes were altered.Ribonucleic acid was isolated from SFCs after IL-1β or TNF-α treatment. Gene expression profiling was performed using oligonucleotide microarray analysis. On the basis of the results of this assay, we investigated the kinetics of macrophage inflammatory protein-3α (MIP-3α) gene expression using PCR, and protein production in TMJ SFCs stimulated by IL-1β or TNF-α using an ELISA. Inhibition experiments were performed with MAPK and NFκB inhibitors. SFCs were stimulated with IL-1β or TNF-α after treatment with inhibitors. The MIP-3α levels were measured using an ELISA.Macrophage inflammatory protein-3α was the gene most upregulated by IL-1β- or TNF-α stimulation. The mRNA and protein levels of MIP-3α increased in response to IL-1β in a time-dependent manner. In contrast, during TNF-α stimulation, the MIP-3α mRNA levels peaked at 4 h, and the protein levels peaked at 8 h. In addition, the IL-1β- and TNF-α-stimulated MIP-3α production was potently reduced by the MAPK and NFκB signaling pathway inhibitors.Interleukin-1β and TNF-α increased the MIP-3α production in SFCs via the MAPK and NFκB pathways. These results suggest that the production of MIP-3α from stimulation with IL-1β or TNF-α is one factor associated with the inflammatory progression of the internal derangement of the TMJ.