A 13-yr-old boy was admitted because of persistent fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea for 3 mo. Abdominal computerized tomography revealed hepatomegaly and multiple nodular low-density pathological changes. At laparotomy, considerable yellow and turbid ascites were seen in the abdominal cavity, and miliary nodules were noted on the surface of the omentum majus, liver, and small intestine wall. Histological examination revealed parenchymal tubercles containing several worms. Pathological diagnosis was parasitic granuloma. These parasites were identified as Porocephalus taiwana sp. nov. (Pentastomida). The patient made an uneventful recovery after therapy and was discharged. Another 17 cases of human pentastomiasis reported from China are reviewed. Human pentastomiasis is an extremely rare disease, and this is only the second case of human P. taiwana sp. nov. infection. Pentastomiasis should be considered in differential diagnosis of patients with a history of abdominal symptoms and eating of poorly cooked snakes.