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Vascular access for renal replacement therapy (RRT) is seen as one of the most challenging areas confronting the nephrology multidisciplinary team. The vascular access of choice is the arterio-venous fistula (AVF) followed by the arterio-venous graft (AVG) and central venous catheter (CVC). A successful vascular access programme requires forward planning ensuring that enough time is available for the preservation of the access site, its creation and maturation. Successful cannulation of the vascular access requires on the part of the nephrology nurse, clinical expertise and knowledge on the management of different types of vascular access including different cannulation techniques.

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