To report about the feasibility of oral health-related quality of life assessment using two short forms of the Oral Health Impact Profile – OHIP-J14 and OHIP-J5 – in prosthodontic patients. Using the item pool of the Japanese version of the OHIP, two short forms based on a 14-item English-language version and a 5-item German-language questionnaire were derived. To test construct validity, the associations between summary scores of two short versions and self-reported oral health and self-reported denture quality have been investigated. Responsiveness was tested in 30 patients treated for their removable partial denture. Test–retest reliability using a time interval of 2 weeks and internal consistency were also tested. Associations between the two short form summary scores and self-reported oral health and denture quality supported construct validity of the instruments. Acceptable reliability for OHIP-J14 and OHIP-J5 was indicated by intra-class correlation coefficients of 0·73 and 0·75 (test–retest reliability) and CRONBACH's alpha of 0·94 and 0·81 (internal consistency) respectively. Responsiveness was sufficient for OHIP-J14 and OHIP-J5 indicated by ‘medium’ effect sizes (0·50 and 0·57 respectively). In addition to sufficient discriminative psychometric properties, the ability to measure change of perceived oral health make OHIP-J14 and OHIP-J5 suitable for outcomes research.