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This study aims to determine the groups of patients who are at risk for noncompliance and misunderstanding of their pain regimen.Survey-based cohort study.Suburban Level-I trauma center.A total of 171 patients between the ages of 18–89 years who underwent surgical fixation of fractures involving the pelvis, long bones, or periarticular regions of the knee, ankle, elbow, and wrist.Patients who cannot accurately reproduce their prescribed pain medication list and patients who modify this pain medication regimen were analyzed by age, employment status, income level, education level, time between surgery and follow-up, and whether pain interfered with activities of daily living.Overall, 147 patients completed the survey. Seventy percent (n = 114) of patients could not accurately reproduce their pain medication regimen, regardless of age, employment status, income level, education level, time between surgery and follow-up, and whether pain interfered with activities of daily living. Patients (61.2%; n = 90), regardless of the 6 aforementioned demographic factors, also admitted to modifying their pain medication regimen with non-prescribed medications, with 55.8% (n = 82) of patients adding over-the-counter medications to surgeon-prescribed narcotic medications.Misunderstanding and noncompliance of surgeon-prescribed pain regimens are prevalent across all patient demographics. Knowledge of the potential effects these augmentative medications can have on fracture healing and any drug-drug interactions that may arise is an important aspect of patient postoperative care. Surgeons must be wary of these trends and screen for any unintended side effects a patient's pain regimen may have.Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.