Opioid Use Disorders Are Associated With Perioperative Morbidity and Mortality in the Hip Fracture Population

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Abstract

Objectives:

To determine whether opioid use disorders (OUDs) are associated with adverse perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing surgical fixation for proximal femur fractures.

Methods:

The National Hospital Discharge Survey was queried to identify patients surgically treated for proximal femur fractures between 1990 and 2007. Patients were grouped into those with a diagnosis of OUD, nonopioid drug use disorder, or neither. Demographic information and comorbidities were included in univariable and multivariable analyses to identify independent risk factors for perioperative outcomes.

Results:

A total of 8154 patients with a diagnosis of drug use disorder and 4704 patients with a diagnosis of OUD were identified from a cohort of 4,732,165 surgically treated proximal femur fractures. Patients with OUD were significantly younger (46 vs. 79), and a significantly smaller proportion of them had medical comorbidities (21.9% vs. 60.2%) when compared with the no drug misuse cohort. Patients with OUD had significantly more medical complications (51.1% vs. 26.8%), mechanical complications (3% vs. 0.3%), and adverse events (55% vs. 39.7%) when compared with the no drug misuse group. OUD had higher odds for leaving against medical advice [odds ratio (OR) 12.868, range 10.7771–15.375], for any adverse event (OR 4.107, range 3.869–4.360), and for mortality (OR 1.744, range 1.250–2.433) when compared with nondrug misusers.

Conclusions:

Despite being younger and with significantly less medical comorbidities, patients with OUD have higher odds for adverse events, leaving against medical advice, and mortality after surgical treatment of a hip fracture.

Level of Evidence:

Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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