To define the pathoanatomy of the tongue-type calcaneus fracture and assess the appropriateness of percutaneous techniques in addressing all planes of deformity in this injury.Design:
ACS Level I trauma center.Patients/Participants:
Fifty-six displaced Sanders 2B and 2C tongue-type calcaneus fractures identified from an initial cohort of 1118 calcaneus fractures treated over a 16-year period.Main Outcome Measurements:
We reviewed cross-sectional imaging and documented the presence of a varus/valgus (coronal plane) or adduction/abduction (axial plane) position of the tongue fragment in relation to the intact posterior facet, with greater than 10 degrees of angulation being diagnostic of displacement.Results:
When assessing for displacement and angulation in the coronal plane, 98% of tongue fragments were either in a position of valgus (77%) or neutral (21%), with a mean valgus angulation of 17.3 degrees. In the axial plane, 98% of tongue pieces were in a position of adduction (64%) or neutral (34%), with an average angulation into adduction of 15.0 degrees. Sanders 2B fractures were more likely to be in a position of valgus and adduction than those of 2C fractures.Discussion:
The tongue-type calcaneus fracture most often displaces into a position of plantarflexion, valgus, and adduction. Knowledge of this deformity may aid in achieving successful closed reduction when using the Essex-Lopresti maneuver or other less invasive techniques.