Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of the Femoral Head via the Smith–Petersen Approach

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Pipkin described femoral head fractures in the 1950s, but controversy still exists regarding indications for surgery and approaches for operative treatment of femoral head fractures. Clear indications for operative intervention include inability to reduce the hip with closed methods, a nonconcentric reduction, fracture fragments within the articulating surface of the hip, and associated injuries (acetabulum and femoral neck fractures) with their own indications for surgery. The anterior approach described by Smith–Petersen has been modified (using only the distal portion) and used to visualize, clean, reduce, and fix these fractures with and without anterior dislocation of the hip.

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