Malnutrition and the Orthopaedic Trauma Patient: A Systematic Review of the Literature

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Abstract

Objectives:

To evaluate the available literature for associations between nutrition and outcomes after operative treatment of long bone and long bone periarticular fractures.

Data Sources:

Systematic review of English-language articles in the MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane computerized literature databases (through December 2015) using PRISMA guidelines.

Study Selection:

Randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, case–control studies, and cohort studies (retrospective and prospective) involving long bone and long bone periarticular fractures that included the effect of nutritional status on fracture union, time to union, and any related soft-tissue complication were eligible for review.

Data Extraction:

Two authors independently extracted data from the selected studies using a standardized data collection form with predefined data fields for demographics, interventions, study methods, complications, and management outcomes.

Data Synthesis:

Although one of the original aims of the study was to conduct a meta-analysis, the available literature did not offer sufficient data for meta-analysis.

Conclusions:

Although our systematic review demonstrates a possible role for oral nutritional supplementation and vitamin supplementation in the orthopaedic trauma patient, there remains a need for well-designed trials to clarify this role. There is likely benefit to multidisciplinary approaches to nutritional optimization in the orthopaedic trauma patient, and this should be explored further in forthcoming work.

Level of Evidence:

Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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