Influence of Anticipation on Movement Patterns in Subjects With ACL Deficiency Classified as Noncopers

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Abstract

• STUDY DESIGN:

Two-factor, mixed experimental design.

• OBJECTIVES:

To compare movement patterns of subjects who are anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient and classified as noncopers to controls during early stance of anticipated and unanticipated straight and cutting tasks.

• BACKGROUND:

Altered neuromuscular control of subjects that are ACL deficient and noncoper theoretically influences movement patterns during unanticipated tasks.

• METHODS AND MEASURES:

The study included 16 subjects who are ACL deficient, classified as noncopers, and 20 healthy controls. Data were collected using an Optotrak Motion Analysis System and force plate integrated with Motion Monitor Software to generate knee joint angles, moments, and power. Each testing session included anticipated tasks, straight walking task (ST), and 45° side-step cutting tasks (SSC), followed by a set of unexpected straight walking (STU) and unexpected sidestep cutting (SSCU) tasks in a random order. For all tasks speed was maintained at 2 m/s. Peak knee angle, moment, and power variables during early stance were compared using 2-way mixed-effects ANOVA models.

• RESULTS:

For both the straight and sidestep tasks, the noncoper group did not show a dependence on whether the task was anticipated or unanticipated (group-by-condition interaction) for the knee angle (straight, P = .067; side-step cutting, P = .103), moment (straight, P = .079; side-step cutting, P = .996), and powers (straight, P = .181; side-step cutting, P = .183) during the loading response phase. However, during both straight and side-step cutting tasks, the subjects in the noncoper group used significantly lower knee flexion angles (straight, P = .002; side-step cutting, P = .019), knee moments (straight, P = .005; sidestep cutting, P<.001), and knee powers (straight, P = .013; side-step cutting, P<.001).

• CONCLUSIONS:

This study suggests subjects that are ACL deficient and classified as noncopers use a common abnormal movement pattern of lower knee extensor loading even during unanticipated tasks.

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