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Case report.Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare, benign disorder characterized by idiopathic proliferation affecting the synovium of joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae. Diagnosing PVNS in the knee is difficult because the clinical presentation and symptoms mimic those of more common disorders at the joint, such as internal derangements or arthritis. Operative treatment of PVNS typically consists of arthroscopic or open synovectomy, but no reports of postoperative rehabilitation exist.This case describes the postoperative rehabilitation of a 46-year-old female who had left knee surgery secondary to PVNS. Rehabilitation consisted of combined manual therapy, exercise, and gait training to improve function and gait, and cognitive-behavioral techniques to improve self-efficacy.All impairments improved in 2.5 months of physical therapy to normal, and the patient estimated 80% to 90% return to function.This patient obtained excellent outcomes in 2.5 months of physical therapy following surgery for PVNS. Although no firm conclusions can be drawn from a case report, this patient responded well to a biopsychosocial approach that combined physical therapy with cognitivebehavioral techniques.Therapy, level 4.