Cross-cultural Adaptation of the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) Questionnaire for Spanish Athletes With Achilles Tendinopathy

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Abstract

• STUDY DESIGN: Clinical measurement study.

• BACKGROUND: Achilles tendinopathy is a prevalent sport-related injury. The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) questionnaire is a widely used patient-reported outcome to assess the severity of symptoms for this injury.

• OBJECTIVE: To adapt the VISA-A questionnaire into Spanish and to assess its psychometric properties.

• METHODS: Cross-cultural adaptation was conducted according to recommended guidelines. The Spanish VISA-A (VISA-A-Sp) questionnaire was administered to 210 subjects: 70 healthy students, 70 active at-risk subjects (participating in running and jumping), and 70 patients diagnosed with Achilles tendinopathy. Participants were assessed at baseline and after 3 to 5 days. The injured subjects were also evaluated with a quality-of-life questionnaire (Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-36]) and at discharge. The final VISA-A-Sp was evaluated for reliability, validity, and responsiveness.

• RESULTS: Cronbach alpha for the VISA-A-Sp was greater than .8. The intraclass correlation coefficient (model 2,1) was 0.993 (95% confidence interval: 0.991, 0.995; P<.05). In the confirmatory factor analysis, a 1-factor solution obtained a relatively good fit. Subjects with Achilles tendinopathy scored significantly lower than the other 2 groups (P<.001). The VISA-A-Sp score within the Achilles tendinopathy group showed significant correlations with SF-36 physical components (Spearman rho>0.5, P<.001). The standard error of the measurement was 2.53, and the minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence level was 7 points. The responsiveness indicators included an effect size of 2.16 and a standardized response mean of 1.92.

• CONCLUSION: The VISA-A-Sp showed satisfactory psychometric properties that were comparable to the original English-language version. Therefore, it can be recommended for use in clinical practice and research for assessing the severity of symptoms in Spanish-speaking athletes who suffer from Achilles tendinopathy.

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