DNA testing is available for a growing number of hereditary diseases in neurology and other specialties. In addition to guiding breeding decisions, DNA tests are important tools in the diagnosis of diseases, particularly in conditions for which clinical signs are relatively nonspecific. DNA testing also can provide valuable insight into the risk of hereditary disease when decisions about treating comorbidities are being made. Advances in technology and bioinformatics will make broad screening for potential disease-causing mutations available soon. As DNA tests come into more common use, it is critical that clinicians understand the proper application and interpretation of these test results.