Drug–drug interactions can cause unanticipated patient morbidity and mortality. The consequences of drug–drug interactions can be especially severe when anticancer drugs are involved because of their narrow therapeutic index. Veterinary clinicians have traditionally been taught that drug–drug interactions result from alterations in drug metabolism, renal excretion or protein binding. More recently, drug–drug interactions resulting from inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug transport have been identified in both human and veterinary patients. Many drugs commonly used in veterinary patients are capable of inhibiting P-glycoprotein function and thereby causing an interaction that results in severe chemotherapeutic drug toxicity. The intent of this review is to describe the mechanism and clinical implications of drug–drug interactions involving P-glycoprotein and anticancer drugs. Equipped with this information, veterinarians can prevent serious drug–drug interactions by selecting alternate drugs or adjusting the dose of interacting drugs.